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In May 1993 the United Nations Security Council founded the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Based in the Hague, Netherlands, the ICTY was formed with the objective of prosecuting those who had committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Bosnia and Herzegovina and elsewhere in the former Yugoslavia during the early to mid-90s. During its mandate (1993-2017), the tribunal heard many cases and tried numerous perpetrators, from those who carried out the killings to those who orchestrated and ordered them. In spite of its accomplishments, the ICTY is considered to be highly controversial. It is debated if the ICTY did enough to foster healing and reconciliation in many of the conflict-torn societies. Many scholars argue that the tribunal operated adequately within their mandate and sought to promote justice and reconciliation, however, those who lived through the brutal wars would argue that there has simply been no justice. Importantly, Bosnia and Herzegovina still remains a country divided by issues of post-conflict justice, among other things. In 2010 a government-led strategic plan emerged that was intended to deal with the unfinished “business” of justice and promote reconciliation throughout the country. However, it failed to do this, and there is currently no political will or momentum to revive it. But, was this strategy doomed to failure from the beginning? In the form of a quantitative study, this book examines the possibility of reconciliation being achieved in Bosnia and Herzegovina through the methods fostered by the strategy. Focusing on three major cities, Sarajevo, Mostar, and Banja Luka, Dr. Jared Bell surveyed nearly 500 people in order to shed light on the subject of the national transitional justice strategy and reconciliation from the perspective of the everyday populace.
Safak Ural, İstanbul University, Tukey
Solipsism indicates an epistemological position that denies the existence of ‘others’ by asserting that the ‘self’ is the only thing that can be known to exist. For sophist philosophers, the belief that “we can not know anything, and even if we do so, we cannot communicate it” is central to this theory. However, until now there has been little academic scholarship that has tried to provide answers to the pressing issues raised by solipsism. In Solipsist Ontology: Physical Things and Personal Perceptual Space, Ural aims to redefine solipsism by analyzing and elaborating on traditional philosophical problems, such as empiricism and rationalism, as well as discussing problems of language, communication, and meaning. Ural reveals where solipsism has been previously ignored, pseudo-problems have arisen that disguise the sources of the problems with prejudices that concern the philosophical problems in question. Notably, many current, as well as traditional problems of ontology, epistemology, and language are bound up in discourses of solipsism. Ural argues that discarding solipsism as a philosophical discourse hinders new interpretations of traditional philosophical thought. This book offers a fresh perspective to solipsism by defining it in relation to concepts such as ‘physical things,’ ‘personal space perception’ and ‘identity.’ Importantly, Ural proposes that an understanding of ‘identity’ is not necessary in order to redefine solipsism. By building a logical system that fashions communication and solipsism as interrelated, it is possible to reject ‘identity’ as a useless concept and thus overcome the classic solipsist dilemma of “we are not able to communicate.” This original piece of research is an important and timely contribution to the field of philosophy that will be of great interest to teachers, researchers, and students.
Religiously, God is the creator of everything seen and unseen; thus, one can ascribe to Him the names of His creation as well, at least in their primordial form. In the mentality of ancient Semitic peoples, naming a place or a person meant determining the role or fate of the named entity, as names were considered to be mysteriously connected with the reality they designated. Subsequently, God gave people the freedom to name persons, objects, and places. However, people carried out this act (precisely) in relation to the divinity, either by remaining devoted to the sacred or by growing estranged from it, an attitude that generated profane names. The sacred/profane dichotomy occurs in all the branches of onomastics, such as anthroponymy, toponymy, and ergonymy. It is circumscribed to complex and interdisciplinary analysis which does not rely on language sciences exclusively, but also on theology, ethnology, sociology, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, geography, history and other connected fields, as well as culture in general. Despite the contributors’ cultural diversity (29 researchers from 16 countries – England, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, U.S.A., and Zimbabwe – on four continents) and their adherence to different religions and faiths, the studies in Onomastics between Sacred and Profane share a common goal that consist of the analysis of names that reveal a person’s identity and behavior, or the existence, configuration and symbolic nature of a place or an object. One can state that names are tightly connected to the surrounding reality, be it profane or religious, in every geographical area and every historical period, and this phenomenon can still be observed today. The particularity of this book lies in the multicultural and multidisciplinary approach in theory and praxis.
Just a few decades ago, the great majority of Mauritanians were still nomads, living and moving in the Sahara Desert. Nowadays they represent less than two percent of the entire Mauritanian population. However, the centuries-old traditions and cultural practices they cultivated continue to enjoy a strong presence in current society. But, where, when and from whom does the nomadic Mauritanian cultural identity originate? Starting with a geographical overview, this book takes the reader on a journey through the arid desert landscape of Mauritania with its hidden mineral wealth and increasing desertification in order to illustrate that this environment has been responsible for shaping the nomadic way of life, from the animals they keep to the crafts they practice. It then delves into the country’s rich history, tracing the nomadic story through the centuries. Accounts of flourishing African empires to later Western colonization enable us to understand the myriad of cultural and religious influences that have contributed to the caste system, language, beliefs, and values of the nomads. With a firm geographical and historical grounding, ‘Nomads of Mauritania’ asserts that it is through their art that the nomads’ true cultural identity is revealed. For the nomads, artistic expression permeates every aspect of their everyday lives. Their artistic practice, whether it takes the form of body art or everyday objects, displays similar characteristics from its motifs to its meaning. In this book, it is defined for the first time as geometrical-abstract art and as ephemeral usual art and ephemeral living art, respectively. Now more than ever, with the increasing threat of climate change, overpopulation and globalization, the nomads of Mauritania are close to extinction. Thus, the authors reflect on the future prospects of both this vulnerable community and their cultural heritage, which is at the art of nomadic life.
Nandita Dinesh, UWC-USA
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Drawing from Dinesh’s findings in Memos from a Theatre Lab: Exploring What Immersive Theatre “Does” and Memos from a Theatre Lab: Spaces, Relationships, & Immersive Theatre, this practice-based-research project, the third in a series of Immersive Theatre experiments in Dinesh’s theatre laboratory, considers the impact of duration when using immersive theatrical aesthetics toward educational and/or socio-political objectives. Dinesh frames the third experiment in her New Mexican theatre laboratory by placing its data and analyses in conversation with Information for/from Outsiders: Chronicles from Kashmir: a twenty-four hour long immersive, theatrical experience that Dinesh has been developing with Kashmiri theatre artists since 2013. In doing so, Dinesh seeks to create ‘conceptual bridges': between practice and theory; between her experiments in New Mexico and the work that she does in Kashmir; between the generation of frameworks to develop Dinesh’s own repertoire as a practitioner-researcher, and the creation of shareable strategies that might be used by other Immersive Theatre scholars, artists, and students.