Patrick Holz, PhD, is an independent researcher who holds degrees in economics (B.A. Hons./M.A.) from the University of Cambridge as well as a doctorate in economics and political sciences (Dr. rer.pol.) from the University of Witten-Herdecke. His research interests have focused on all aspects of organizational format; specifically the differing consequences of either (principal-subordinate) hierarchic organization or decentralized control and coordination in various social, economic and political systems over the course of more than five millennia of human history. Experiences in business and especially workplace contexts as a start-up investor, where organization also plays a crucial role, have further broadened his understanding of organizational impact.