Predictive Minds: Old Problems and New Challenges

Manuel Curado, Steven S. Gouveia (Eds.)

by Mark Miller (Monash University), Wanja Wiese (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany), Valtteri Arstila (University of Turku, Finland), Susanne Uusitalo (University of Turku, Finland), Jarno Tuominen (University of Turku, Finland), Nicolás Lori (University of Minho, Portugal), Miguel Pais-Vieira (University of Aveiro, Portugal), Matthew Sims (Ruhr University Bochum, Germany), Manuel Curado (University of Minho, Portugal), Arthur Schwaninger (University of Zurich, Switzerland), José M. Araya (Universidad de Talca, Chile), Jorge Gonçalves (Institute of Philosophy, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal), Jona Förster (Humboldt-Universität, Germany), João Fonseca (NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal), Jelena Markovic (University of British Columbia), Dina Mendonça (NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal), Thomas Metzinger (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany)

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In this collection of essays, Curado and Gouveia have captured an illuminating snapshot into the contemporary debate on the philosophy of predictive processing. The authors draw on a cast of insightful thinkers, philosophers, and scientists—supported by illustrative visual aids and illusions—to develop a diverse range of modern perspectives. In addition to a highly accessible introduction to predictive processing, this book contains invaluable aids to navigating between realist, representationalist, and constructivist approaches to cognitive science. In short, this book offers a valuable opportunity for neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers to challenge (and perhaps update) their prior beliefs.

Dr. Thomas Parr
Department of Imaging Neuroscience
University College London

The Predictive Processing Theory of Mind is a recent theory developed by philosophers, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists about the nature and function of the brain and its role in creating the conscious mind that we humans, and perhaps some non-human animals, have. The authors that advanced those lines of research believe that there is a fundamental idea that has been overlooked in the research done about the brain until the present: that the brain is a prediction machine with the function of creating hypotheses about the causes of our sensory signals and predictions of possible future sensory signals. Moreover, the internal models of the world created this way are constantly challenged by incorporating the errors of the previous models into new models. From this point of view, the brain's work could be described as a process of making predictions about the upcoming sensory data based on its best current models of the causes of those data.

This book intends to critically analyze this theory and its subsequent theoretical and empirical consequences. To achieve that, the volume brings together some of the best experts on Predictive Processing – such as Thomas Metzinger, Wanja Wiese, or Mark Miller – with the goal of presenting some of the advantages of this approach but also some of its caveats.

List of Figures
Manuel Curado
University of Minho, Portugal
Steven S. Gouveia
University of Porto, Portugal

Chapter 1 Key Concepts of Predictive Processing
Wanja Wiese
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
Thomas Metzinger
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany

Chapter 2 Predictive Processing and Metaphysics
Arthur Schwaninger
University of Zurich, Switzerland

Chapter 3 Taking-off from Primary Impressions: An Essay about the Metaphysical Constraints of Predictive Processing
Manuel Curado
University of Minho, Portugal

Chapter 4 Predictive Mind, Surprise and the Layers of the Emotional Landscape
Dina Mendonça
NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal
Chapter 5 Regulation, not Perception: Emotion and Predictive Machinery
José M. Araya
Universidad de Talca, Chile

Chapter 6 Interoceptive Inference: Emotion-Cognition Interactions in the Predictive Brain
Mark Miller
Monash Centre for Consciousness and Contemplative
Studies, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Jelena Markovic
Psychology Department, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Chapter 7 Predictive Processing and Delusions
Jorge Gonçalves
Institute of Philosophy, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal

Chapter 8 The Predictive Core-Self and Body Illusions
João Fonseca
NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal

Chapter 9 Heads, I Win – Tails, You Lose: Gambling from Predictive Processing Perspective
Valtteri Arstila, Jarno Tuominen and Susanne Uusitalo
University of Turku, Finland

Chapter 10 Ecological in Spirit? Predictive Processing and the Limits of Direct Perception
Matthew Sims
Ruhr University Bochum, Germany

Chapter 11 Predictive Processing as a Computational Mechanism
Jona Förster
Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

Chapter 12 Method to Study Sets of Real Numbers, Infinities, and Infinitesimals
Miguel Pais-Vieira
University of Aveiro, Portugal
Manuel Curado and Nicolás Lori
University of Minho, Portugal


Manuel Curado is a Corresponding Member of the Brazilian Academy of Philosophy. He also works as a professor of Philosophy at the University of Minho, namely in Philosophy of Mind, Ancient Philosophy, and Portuguese Philosophy. He was granted the titles of 'National Defense Auditor' (Ministry of Defense, Lisbon) and 'Senior Management Course for Public Administration' (University of Minho/INA). He is a doctor 'cum laude' from the University of Salamanca, having previously obtained a master's degree in Philosophy from the New University of Lisbon. He recently co-edited 'Perception, Cognition, and Aesthetics' (Routledge, 2019) and 'The Philosophy & Science of Predictive Processing' (Bloomsbury, 2020).

Steven S. Gouveia holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minho (Portugal), where he was a visiting researcher at the Minds, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics Unit of the Royal Institute of Mental Health at the University of Ottawa, Canada. Currently, is a Researcher Fellow at the Mind, Language and Action Group of the Institute of Philosophy of the University of Porto, Portugal. He was recently distinguished as an Honorary Professor of the Faculty of Medicine Andrés Bello, Chile. As an author and editor, he has published thirteen academic books (with Routledge, Palgrave, or Bloomsbury). His most recent one is titled 'Philosophy & Neuroscience: a Methodological Analysis,' published in 2022. More info:

Predictive Processing, Prediction Machine, Predictive Brain, Predictive Mind, Perception, Predictions, Interoceptive Inference, Bayesian Brain, Immanuel Kant, Controlled Hallucination, Active Inference, Cortical Hierarchy, Top-Down Approach, Probabilistic Inference, Prediction Error Minimization

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Bibliographic Information

Book Title

Predictive Minds: Old Problems and New Challenges





Number of pages


Physical size

236mm x 160mm


18 B&W
Publication date
September 2023