The Age of Artificial Intelligence: An Exploration

Steven S. Gouveia (Ed.)

by Soenke Ziesche (Maldives National University, Maldives), René Mogensen (Birmingham City University), Caterina Moruzzi (University of Nottingham), Steven S. Gouveia (University of Minho, Portugal), Nicole A. Hall , Cody Turner (University of Connecticut), Ben Goertzel (Xiamen University, China), Gabriel Axel Montes (University of Newcastle), David Pearce (Neuroethics Foundation), Daniel Dennett (Tufts University), Stevan Harnad (University of Québec; University of Southampton), Roman V. Yampolskiy (University of Louisville), Mariana Chinellato Ferreira (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Peter A. DePergola II (University of Massachusetts Medical School; College of Our Lady of the Elms), Kulvinder Panesar (York St John University), Vernon Vinge (San Diego State University), Hasse Hämäläinen (Jagiellonian University), Roman V. Yampolskiy (University of Louisville), Federico Piston , Natasha Vita-More (University of Advancing Technology), Ricardo M. Ferrer (University of Granada, Spain), Txetxu Ausin (University of the Basque Country, Spain), Aníbal M. Astobiza (University of the Basque Country, Spain), Tomislav Miletic (University of Rijeka, Croatia), Eray Özkural (Bilkent University, Turkey)

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With worldwide spending estimates of over $97 billion by 2023, it is no surprise that Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is one of the hottest topics at present in both the private and public spheres. Comprising of vital contributions from the most influential researchers in the field, including Daniel Dennett, Roman V. Yampolskiy, Frederic Gilbert, Stevan Harnad, David Pearce, Natasha Vita-More, Vernon Vinge and Ben Goertzel, ‘The Age of Artificial Intelligence: An Exploration’ discusses a variety of topics ranging from the various ethical issues associated with A.I. based technologies in terms of morality and law to subjects related to artificial consciousness, artistic creativity and intelligence.

The volume is organized as follows: Section I is dedicated to reflections on the Intelligence of A.I., with chapters by Soenke Ziesche and Roman V. Yampolskiy, Stevan Harnad, Daniel Dennett and David Pearce. Next, Section II discusses the relationship between consciousness, simulation and artificial intelligence, with chapters by Gabriel Axel Montes and Ben Goertzel, Cody Turner, Nicole Hall and Steven S. Gouveia. Section III, dedicated to aesthetical creativity and language in artificial intelligence, includes chapters by Catarina Moruzzi, René Mogensen, Mariana Chinellato Ferreira and Kulvinder Panesar. The subsequent Section IV is on the Ethics of the Bionic Brain with the participation of Peter A. DePergola II, Tomislav Miletić and Frederic Gilbert, Aníbal M. Astobiza, Txetxu Ausin, Ricardo M. Ferrer and Stephen Rainey and Natasha Vita-More. Finally, Section V follows on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence with chapters by Federico Pistono and Roman V. Yamploskiy, Hasse Hämäläinen, Vernon Vinge and Eray Özkural.

The Age of Artificial Intelligence is imminent, if not here already. We should ensure that we invest in the right people and the right ideas to create the best possible solutions to the problems of the present and prepare for those of the future. This edited volume will be of particular interest to researchers in the field of A.I. as well of those in Cognitive Science (Philosophy of the Mind, Neuroscience, and Linguistics), Aesthetics and Arts, Applied Ethics and Political Philosophy/ Law. Students studying the aforementioned topics can also benefit from its contents.


PREFACE: Susan Schneider (University of Connecticut)

INTRODUCTION: Steven S. Gouveia (University of Minho)


Chapter One: “Towards the Mathematics of Intelligence” by Soenke Ziesche (Maldives National University) and Roman V. Yampolskiy (University of Louisville)

Chapter Two: “Minds, Brain and Turing” by Stevan Harnad (Université du Québec & University of Southampton)

Chapter Three: “The Age of Post-Intelligent Design” by Daniel Dennett (Tufts University)

Chapter Four: “Human and Intelligent Machines: Co-Evolution, Fusion or Replacement?” by David Pearce (Director, Neuroethics Foundation)


Chapter Five: “Mindplexes, Non-Ordinary Consciousness, and Artificial General Intelligence” by Gabriel Axel Montes (University of Newcastle) and Ben Goertzel (Xiamen University)

Chapter Six: “The Cognitive Phenomenology Argument for Disembodied A.I. Consciousness” by Cody Turner (University of Connecticut)

Chapter Seven: “Human Experience and Artificial Intelligence” by Nicole A. Hall (Independent Scholar)

Chapter Eight: “Are we Really Living in a Simulation?” by Steven S. Gouveia (University of Minho)


Chapter Nine: “Can a Computer Create a Musical Work? Creativity and Autonomy of A.I. Software for Music Composition” by Caterina Moruzzi (University of Nottingham)

Chapter Ten: “Formal Representation of Context in Computational Creativity for Music” by René Mogensen
(Birmingham City University)

Chapter Eleven: “A Human Touch in Computer-Generated Literature” by Mariana Chinellato Ferreira (University of Coimbra)

Chapter Twelve: “Natural Language Processing in Artificial Intelligence: a Functional Linguistic Perspective” by Kulvinder Panesar (York St John University)


Chapter Thirteen: “The Bionic Brain: Pragmatic Neuroethics and the Moral Plausibility of Cognitive Enhancement” by Peter DePergola II (University of Massachusetts Medical School)

Chapter Fourteen: “Does A.I. Brain Implant Compromise Agency? Examining Potential Harms of Brain-Computer Interfaces on Self-Determination” by Tomislav MiletiĆ (University of Rijeka) and Frederic Gilbert (University of Washington)

Chapter Fifteen: “The Ethics of Brain-Computer Interfaces” by Aníbal M. Astobiza (Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea), Txetxu Ausin (University of the Basque Country), Ricardo M. Ferrer (University of Granada) and Stephen Rainey (University of Oxford)

Chapter Sixteen: “Wisdom as Meta-Knowledge: a Practical Application of Artificial General Intelligence and Neural Macrosensing” by Natasha Vita-More (University of Advancing Technology)


Chapter Seventeen: “Unethical Research: How to Create a Malevolent Artificial Intelligence” by Federico Piston (Independent Scholar) and Roman V. Yampolskiy (University of Louisville)

Chapter Eighteen: “The Search for X: Grounding the Rights and Obligations of Machines” by Hasse Hämäläinen (Jagiellonian University)

Chapter Nineteen: “The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era” by Vernon Vinge (San Diego State University).

Chapter Twenty: “Epistemological and Ethical Implications of the Free-Energy Principle” by Eray Özkural (Bilkent University)


Steven S. Gouveia is completing his PhD at the University of Minho (Portugal), funded by the Science and Technology Foundation, under the supervision of philosopher Manuel Curado (University of Minho) and neuroscientist Georg Northoff (University of Ottawa). He is a visiting researcher at the Minds, Brain Imaging and Neuroethics Group at the Royal Institute of Mental Health, University of Ottawa, and a researcher of the Lisbon Mind and Reasoning Group (Nova University of Lisbon) and the Mind, Language and Action Group (University of Porto).

Gouveia has published eight academic books, including ‘Perception, Cognition and Aesthetics’ (2018, Routledge), ‘Automata’s Inner Movie: Science and Philosophy of Mind’ (2018, Vernon Press), and has a forthcoming publication with Bloomsbury titled ‘The Science and Philosophy of Predictive Processing’. He hosts an international documentary on A.I, with the participation of international researchers such as Peter Signer and Paul Thagard, and has published several journal articles and book chapters on this subject as well as the mind and brain, ethics and aesthetics. For more information, visit:

Artificial Intelligence, Alan Turing, Ethics, Artificial Creativity, Consciousness, Brain, Singularity, Simulation