How Sex Got Screwed Up: The Ghosts that Haunt Our Sexual Pleasure - Book One

From the Stone Age to the Enlightenment

by Jon Knowles

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How Sex Got Screwed Up: The Ghosts That Haunt Our Sexual Pleasure (Book 1.) by Jon Knowles is a remarkable achievement: an engaging and readable masterpiece about the history of sexuality. It covers a lot of ground beginning with the Stone Age to Victoria to Our Own Time, exploring sexual myths and laws from sources including anthropology, sociology, and philosophy, to reveal the tyranny of religion and politics. Knowles is a gifted storyteller with the unique ability to bring the reader along on his journey “to better understand what makes us so uncomfortable about sex.” Overall, he demonstrates evidence to prove his main theme: despite the eons of oppression, sex in all of its glory “is a positive force with many physical and emotional benefits.”
You may get disconcerted from time to time reading about the overwhelming, punitive powers of those obsessed with making sex a negative and sinful expression of human nature, but I guarantee you will never be bored. Knowles’ keen sense of observation and straightforward prose is often humorous and you are likely to find yourself chuckling at the missteps of those who (still) try to restrain the forces of sexual desire. I highly recommend this book. It is an essential reading for professionals in the field of sexology and the many related fields of cultural anthropology, and social and political science. Knowles research is solid with informative footnotes, appendices, and an extensive bibliography. Actually, it has great appeal to anyone intrigued by the meaning of sexuality and curious to learn more about why we feel and act the way we do about sex.

Carol Cassell Ph.D.
Former president, The American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists (AASECT) and health scientist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The ghosts that haunt our sexual pleasure were born in the Stone Age. Sex and gender taboos were used by tribes to differentiate themselves from one another. These taboos filtered into the lives of Bronze and Iron Age men and women who lived in city-states and empires. For the early Christians, all sex play was turned into sin, instilled with guilt, and punished severely. With the invention of sin came the construction of women as subordinate beings to men.
Despite the birth of romance in the late middle ages, Renaissance churches held inquisitions to seek out and destroy sex sinners, all of whom it saw as heretics. The Age of Reason saw the demise of these inquisitions. But, it was doctors who would take over the roles of priests and ministers as sex became defined by discourses of crime, degeneracy, and sickness.
The middle of the 20th century saw these medical and religious teachings challenged for the first time as activists, such as Alfred Kinsey and Margaret Sanger, sought to carve out a place for sexual freedom in society. However, strong opposition to their beliefs and the growing exploitation of sex by the media at the close of the century would ultimately shape 21st century sexual ambivalence.
Book One of this two-part publication traces the history of sex from the Stone Age to the Enlightenment. Interspersed with ‘personal hauntings’ from his own life and the lives of friends and relatives, Knowles reveals how historical discourses of sex continue to haunt us today. This book is a page-turner in simple and plain language about ‘how sex got screwed up’ for millennia. For Knowles, if we know the history of sex, we can get over it.


Foreword by Beverly Whipple, Rutgers University
Preface
Chapter 1 In the Beginning Was the Sex Drive (3,600,000,000 Years Ago – Today)
Chapter 2 The Rise of the Sexual Taboo (Sex from the Stone Age to Today)
Chapter 3 Ziggurats, Pyramids, and the Pentateuch (Monuments to Sexual Slavery in the Near East: 12,000–1,200 BCE)
Chapter 4 The Great Wall (Sex in India and China: 12,000 BCE–1911)
Chapter 5 The Boys Club on the Acropolis (Sex in Greece: 800–310 BCE)
Chapter 6 With the Hearts of Gladiators (Sex in Rome and Its Empire: 500 BCE–100 CE)
Chapter 7 The Anti-Sex Junta that Took Over the World (The Early Christian Opposition to Sex: 1–400)
Chapter 8 Celestial Sex, Terrestrial Sin (Hindu and Christian Views of Sex: 400–750)
Chapter 9 Romance on the Rise (Courtly Love in Europe: 750–1200)
Chapter 10 Déjà Vu All Over Again (Sex as Heresy in Europe: 1100–1600)
Chapter 11 Déjà Vu All Over Again — Part Two (Sex Life in Europe: 1200–1600)
Chapter 12 Beyond the Shadow of the Cross (Sex before Columbus in the New World: 1492–1850)
Chapter 13 Desexing the New World (The Junta Takes Over the Americas: 1500–1830)
Chapter 14 From Sin to Sickness to Going Straight (Gender Transformations in the Old World: 1600–1830)
Chapter 15 Voices of Resistance
(Women Cope with the “Age of Reason”: 1600–1830)
Chapter 16 Getting It On in the Enlightenment (Sex Lives: 1600–1830)
Appendices
Bibliography
Index

Jon Knowles’s interest in sex and society was crystallized in 1981 with the onset of the AIDS pandemic. Knowles formed part of the initial group of people trained by Gay Men’s Health Crisis (GMHC) to care for people living with AIDs in New York City. For 13 years Knowles witnessed first-hand the pain and suffering caused by individual and societal fears of sex and sexuality.
In 1983, he got a position as a temp with Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA). Owing to his invaluable experience and knowledge of AIDs, he was later offered a full-time position as PPFA’s sexual health writer. During his 30 years at PPFA, Knowles contributed greatly to its print and online media presence.
In 1994, Knowles joined the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) to supplement his knowledge about sex and sexuality. Through GMHC, PPFA, and SSSS, he heard thousands of stories about how people cope with their sexuality and their sex lives. In his research, Knowles looked to find answers to the questions: Why health professionals saw sexuality mostly as a risk behavior? Why most people seemed ambiguous about their sex lives? And why the increasingly powerful, conservative right was so negative about human sexuality? After 22 years of research, his answers are in this book.

beauty / body image: circumcision, fashion, female genital mutilation, hygiene;
child sexuality: adolescence, child sex play, corporal punishment, legitimacy;
custom: advertising, age of consent, censorship, confession / penitentials / sin,
conformity / nonconformity, crusades, degeneracy / perversion / sickness, demons / devils / evil spirits, double standard, guilt / penance / shame, inquisitions / autos da fé, law, magic / spells / astrology / potions, media, prohibitions, punishments, religion, sex education, corporal punishment, sexual rights, taboo; family: adoption, inheritance / primogeniture; family planning:
abandonment / exposure, abortion, birth control, castration / eunuchs, eugenics / breeding, infanticide, pregnancy, sterilization; fantasy: myth / miracle, porn / erotica / scandal, wet dreams; gender / gender role: clitoris / vagina / vulva / yoni, cross-dressing, genderfuck / genderqueer, hijra, hysteria / prolonged virginity or abstinence, intersex, matriarchy / matrilineal, men / masculinity, misogyny, patriarchy, phallus / lingam / herm / penis, transgender / berdache, transsexuals, transvestites, women / femininity, women’s rights / gender equity;
going without sex: abstinence / chastity, monasticism / convents, virginity;
pair bonding: concubines, courtesans / mistresses / mignons, courting / dating / hooking up / cruising, courtly love, dowry / bride price, love, mixed-sex marriage / divorce / bigamy, monogamy, passionate friendship / spiritual love / spiritual marriage, polyandry, polygyny / polygamy, romance, same-sex marriage,
race / racism / anti-Semitism: mixed-race sex, slavery; reproduction: childbirth, ejaculate / seed / sperm, fertility, impotence, infertility, menstruation, ovum / human egg; sex crime: adultery, child sex abuse, “crimes of passion”, intimate partner violence, rape, sex in a sacred place, sex panics, sexual abuse, witchcraft / heresy / midwifery; sex infections: anal warts, genital warts,
gonorrhea, Hansen’s disease / leprosy, HIV / AIDS, spermatorrhea, syphilis;
sex play / lovemaking: anal sex, aphrodisiacs, coitus, embracing, flagellation / flogging, fornication / sex outside of marriage, foreplay, frottage / body rubbing body, hand jobs/ fondling, incest, interfemoral sex / between the thighs, intergenerational sex, kink, kissing, mixed-sex sex, nonprocreative sex, oral sex,
orgasm, orgy / group sex, paraphilia, piercing / bloodletting, same-sex sex / “sodomy”, S & M, sex drive / sexual desire / lust / love fever, sex toys,
sexual function / dysfunction, sexual pleasure, sex with animals, solo sex,
wife-swapping; sexual orientation: asexual, gay, bisexual, lesbian, straight;
sex workers: boys / men, brothels / bagnios, children, doctors, hetairai, johns / customers, sex tourism, streetwalkers, stripping, temple harlots, trans / intersex




Page References by Historical Era

beauty / body image 39–44; (800–310 BCE) 133–4; (500 BCE–100 CE) 188, 202, 207; (1–400 CE) 225, 233; (400–750) 293, 309, 335; (750–1000) 354–5, 367; (1100–1600) 436–8; (1200–1600) 525; (1600–1830) 747, 775, 866–9, 888
circumcision 36; (1–400 CE) 225, 235; (1100–1600) 419, 434
fashion 40; (12,000 BCE–1911) 105 (500 BCE–100 CE) 201; (1–400 CE) 254, 259, 262; (750–1000) 402; (1100–1600) 425–6, 438, 444, 456; (1200–1600) 485, 496–501, 533, 545–6; (1492–1850) 576; (1500–1830) 613, 656; (1600–1830) 721, 758–60, 763–4, 774, 832, 873–7, 882, 884, 898, 913, 918, 923
female genital mutilation 43, (1–400 CE) 266–7; (400–750) 332; (1600–1830) 737
hygiene 44; (12,000 BCE–1911) 153; (500 BCE–100 CE) 201–2; (1–400 CE) 233, 246; (400–750) 286, 290, 310–1, 316; (750–1000) 343, 355; (1100–1600) 437–44; (1200–1600) 550, 553; (1600–1830) 867–73, 898, 952

child sexuality 36–8; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 69; (500 BCE–100CE) 178, 182, 206; (1200–1600) 504, 508, 556; (1492–1850) 566, 583–4, 594–6; (1500–1830) 609, 624–5, 653; (1600–1830) 894–5, 909, 914
adolescence 6–10, 37; (12,000 BCE–1911) 103, 115; (500 BCE–100 CE) 160, 169, 174, 177, 182–4; (1–400 CE) 269–70; (400–750) 287; (750–1000) 382; (1100–1600) 428, 471; (1200–1600) 480, 483, 485, 487, 504, 507–8, 522, 525, 528, 544, 546; (1492–1850) 563; (1500–1830) 617, 635, 644; (1600–1830) 721, 914, 917, 937
child sex play 6–10; (1200–1600) 492, 504
corporal punishment (400–750) 310; (750–1200) 478; (1200–1600) 492: (1500–1830) 658–9; (1600–1830) 777, 786–8, 807, 865–6
legitimacy (12,000–1,200 BCE) 65, 70; (800–310 BCE) 134, 141, 146; (500 BCE–100 CE) 175, 187, 192; (400–750) 309, 317, 324, 333; (750–1000) 345, 354, 375; (1100–1600) 469; (1200–1600) 506, 514; (1492–1850) 600; (1500–1830) 604, 614, 649–50; (1600–1830) 781, 808–9, 901–4, 944

custom 35–9, 44, 52–3; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 59, 63; (1492–1850) 559–60, 591; (1500–1830) 601–2, 604–5, 610, 618, 625, 668; (1600–1830) 865–6
advertising 34; (1600–1830) 697, 781–2, 808, 886, 916, 919–21
age of consent (400–750) 317, 330; (750–1000) 343, 350, 353; (1100–1600) 448; (1200–1600) 509, 522–3; (1492–1850) 588; (1500–1830) 654; (1600–1830) 778, 816, 863–4, 895, 906
censorship (500 BCE–100 CE) 157–8, 160–2; (750–1000) 385; (1100–1600) 476; (1200–1600) 519, 535–8, 541, 543; (1600–1830) 930, 932, 937, 940–2, 945–8
confession / penitentials / sin 27, 49; (500 BCE–100 CE) 189; (1–400 CE) 223, 229, 232, 236, 247–51; (400–750) 286, 301–13, 320; (750–1000) 341, 343, 346, 354–5, 363, 391, 396, 400, 408, 411; (1100–1600) 417, 421, 428–9, 434, 461, 472; (1200–1600) 478, 482, 513, 517, 521, 528, 530–2, 555–6; (1492–1850) 560–1; (1500–1830) 605, 618–22, 624, 633, 637, 651, 666, 674, 678–80; (1600–1830) 696–7, 706, 708–10, 744; (1600–1830) 769, 792, 796, 799, 849, 867, 873, 881, 888–9, 895, 966–8
conformity / nonconformity (1–400 CE) 262; (400–750) 314, 328; (750–1000) 367; (1100–1600) 418–9, 429, 435; (1600–1830) 957
crusades (750–1000) 358, 404, 415; (1100–1600) 419–21, 423–4, 426
degeneracy / perversion / sickness (1600–1830) 699, 706, 768, 769, 882, 902–3, 923, 938
demons / devils / evil spirits (12,000 BCE–1911) 107; (800–310 BCE) 126; (1–400 CE) 228, 230, 268, 281, 284; (400–750) 290, 314–5; (750–1000) 369, 390, 404, 408, 410–2, 414; (1100–1600) 418–9, 421–4, 430, 435, 449, 452, 459–60, 468–75; (1200–1600) 486, 490, 494, 497, 506, 508, 515, 517, 529–30, 548; (1492–1850) 594; (1500–1830) 622, 637, 642, 658, 674, 677; (1600–1830) 710, 721, 787–8, 856–8, 860
double standard (12,000–1,200 BCE) 67; (500 BCE–100 CE) 160, 173; (750–1000) 364; (1100–1600) 467; (1500–1830) 605, 624, 667–8; (1600–1830) 822, 880–1, 914
guilt / penance / shame 6, 8, 45, 52–5; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 69, 74, 86; (12,000 BCE–1911) 102, 107, 114; (800–310 BCE) 129–130, 153; (500 BCE–100 CE) 161–2, 164, 166, 185, 195, 200–1; (1–400 CE) 227, 233, 247–51, 253, 266, 273; (400–750) 289, 304, 330; (750–1000) 348, 405; (1200–1600) 506, 513, 528, 555; (1492–1850) 560, 562, 567; (1500–1830) 602, 637–8, 678, 680–1, 688; (1600–1830) 695, 697, 702, 718, 744, 756, 791–3, 829–30, 838, 859, 867, 873, 880, 923, 956–8
inquisitions / autos da fé (1100–1600) 426–30, 442, 446, 463, 465, 468, 473, 475; (1200–1600) 478–80, 482, 510, 513, 516; (1492–1850) 559, 582; (1500–1830) 602, 613, 619, 637, 676–7; (1600–1830) 707–9, 712, 797, 887, 910, 930, 956
law 24–5; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 72; (800–310 BCE) 139–41; (500 BCE–100 CE) 161–2, 173–5, 185–6, 193–4, 199, 203; (1–400 CE) 237, 239–40, 244; (400–750) 285, 317–8, 327–30; (750–1000) 345–6, 350, 352, 355, 362, 400, 403–4; (1100–1600) 425–6, 428, 431; (1200–1600) 479, 487, 490, 516, 520; (1500–1830) 684–5, 689, 692; (1600–1830) 707, 803, 807
magic / spells / astrology / potions (12,000–1,200 BCE) 74; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101, 105; (500 BCE–100 CE) 178, 205; (1–400 CE) 247, 264–5; (400–750) 297, 310–2, 314–5; (750–1000) 343–4, 352, 357, 378; (1100–1600) 426, 430, 445, 454, 468, 473; (1200–1600) 478, 534; (1492–1850) 568, 570, 579–81, 584, 600; (1500–1830) 675–7; (1600–1830) 779, 813, 849–50, 856, 858, 954, 958
media (12,000 BCE–1911) 122; (500 BCE–100 CE) 157
prohibitions (12,000–1,200 BCE) 72–3, 80, 85–6; (12,000 BCE–1911) 109, 114, 118; (800–310 BCE) 154; (400–750) 327–8; (750–1000) 402, 412–5; (1200–1600) 537, 546–8; (1500–1830) 623; (1600–1830) 882
punishments 26–7; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 71, 77, 79, 81; (12,000 BCE–1911) 112, 116; (800–310 BCE) 137, 147; (500 BCE–100 CE) 152, 184, 197–9; (1–400 CE) 243, 251; (400–750) 303–4, 306–12, 321, 325, 327, 330; (750–1000) 348, 355–6, 388, 413–5; (1100–1600) 419, 421–2, 424–30, 435, 446–7, 452, 463, 468, 475; (1200–1600) 477–87, 490–4, 506–7, 509–10, 512–3, 515–6, 520, 525–6, 532, 534, 536, 542, 545, 547–9, 553, 555–6; (1492–1850) 561, 565–8, 581–2, 584–5, 589; (1500–1830) 602–3, 607, 609, 614–7, 619, 622–4, 628, 633, 635–7, 640–2, 644–5, 648, 651, 655–8, 660, 666, 678, 684–5, 692–3; (1600–1830) 695, 707–8, 710–5, 720–3, 725–31, 733–8, 741, 743, 750–1, 766, 768, 791–4, 805, 857, 859–60, 866, 884, 887, 892–3, 895–7, 901, 905, 912, 914, 927, 930, 932, 953, 957–8, Appendix I
religion (500 BCE–100 CE) 157, 168–9, 201; (1–400 CE) Chapter 7: 219–84; (400–750) 331; (750–1000) 337–8, 340–3, 345, 350, 368, 386–8, 401–6, 412–5; (1100–1600) 417–30, 434, 445, 448, 459–61, 465; (1200–1600) 536; (1500–1830) 607, 612, 618; (1600–1830) 695, 768, 780, 906
sex education (12,000–1,200 BCE) 79; (12,000 BCE–1911) 106–7, 109, 112, 122; (800–310 BCE) 130, 148–9; (400–750) 294; (1200–1600) 534–6, 539, 543; (1492–1850) 583–4; (1500–1830) 630, 689–90, 692–3; corporal punishment (400–750) 310; (750–1200) 478; (1200–1600) 492: (1500–1830) 658–9; (1600–1830) 777, 786–8, 807, 811, 814–5, 852, 863, 867, 883, 895, 928–49
sexual rights (1500–1830) 638; (1600–1830) 735, 866, 888, 908
taboo — Chapter Two: 35–55; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 62; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159, 173, 197, 199; (750–1000) 368, 375; (1200–1600) 501; (1492–1850) 560, 570, 579–80, 590; (1600–1830) 695, 697, 731, 889, 897, 917, 932, 944

family 17, 20, 24, 26, 37–9, 44, 48, 51, 53–4; (800–310 BCE) 149; (500 BCE–100 CE) 169; (1–400 CE) 238, 241, 246; (400–750) 316–8, 321, 324; (750–1000) 345; (1200–1600) 487, 504, 521–2, 546, 551; (1500–1830) 604, 654; (1600–1830) 863–6
adoption (500 BCE–100 CE) 198; (1–400 CE) 238–9; (750–1000) 347; (1500–1830) 634–5
inheritance / primogeniture (12,000–1,200 BCE) 60–66, 80; (12,000 BCE–1911) 103–5, 112; (500 BCE–100 CE) 185–7, 198; (1–400 CE) 236, 241, 260; (400–750) 321, 325, 331, 333; (750–1000) 342, 344–5, 350, 353, 405–6; (1100–1600) 451; (1200–1600) 514–5, 522, 546; (1492–1850) 575; (1500–1830) 612, 616, 625, 657, 672; (1600–1830) 772, 791, 805, 808, 905–7

family planning (400–750) 317; (1100–1600) 445–50
abandonment / exposure (12,000–1,200 BCE) 76; (12,000 BCE–1911) 104–5, 124–5; (800–310 BCE) 140, 147; (500 BCE–100 CE) 170–1, 190–2; (1–400 CE) 239; (400–750) 317–8; (750–1000) 347; (1100–1600) 449–50; (1200–1600) 551; (1500–1830) 645, 662, 664–5; (1600–1830) 808–9, 854, 860, 913
abortion (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 74, 96; (500 BCE–100 CE) 189–91; (1–400 CE) 280–4; (400–750) 309, 320; (750–1000) 346; (1100–1600) 445–7, 472–3; (1200–1600) 545; (1492–1850) 567, 585; (1500–1830) 619, 662–3; (1600–1830) 853, 909
birth control 9; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 75–6, 82; (12,000 BCE–1911) 106; (800–310 BCE) 144; (500 BCE–100 CE) 190–1; (1–400 CE) 280–3; (400–750) 315; (750–1000) 346, 363; (1100–1600) 445–7, 473; (1200–1600) 508, 544; (1492–1850) 584–5; (1500–1830) 661–2; (1600–1830) 718, 847–56, 860, 895, 931, 953
castration / eunuchs (12,000–1,200 BCE) 62, 72, 74, 82; (12,000 BCE–1911) 102, 119–21; (800–310 BCE) 141; (500 BCE–100 CE) 184, 189, 204–6; (1–400 CE) 226, 234–7, 257, 266, 271; (400–750) 299; (750–1000) 340, 364; (1100–1600) 420, 458; (1200–1600) 479, 482–3; (1500–1830) 616, 645; (1600–1830) 766–8, 897, 932
eugenics / breeding (750–1000) 375; (1500–1830) 608–9, 613, 616–7, 649–50, 674; (1600–1830) 855, 900–1
infanticide (12,000 BCE–1911) 104; (800–310 BCE) 125, 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 190–1; (1–400 CE) 282–4; (750–1000) 346–7; (1100–1600) 450, 473; (1492–1850) 585; (1500–1830) 619, 623, 661–2; (1600–1830) 805, 853–4
pregnancy 37; (1–400 CE) 280; (400–750) 289, 295, 321, 330; (750–1000) 387; (1100–1600) 472; (1200–1600) 494, 502, 530–1, 544–5; (1492–1850) 567, 569, 575–80, 584; (1500–1830) 614, 616, 621, 623–5, 630, 348–9, 657–8, 661, 664, 666, 673; (1600–1830) 767, 781–89, 791, 809, 816, 823, 847, 849–51, 854, 894, 912
sterilization (1200–1600) 552; (1600–1830) 911

fantasy (750–1000) 409; (1100–1600) 452–4; (1200–1600) 518–9; (1500–1830) 668, 680; (1600–1830) 858, 888, 940, 957
myth / miracle 20–3; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 66, 69–70, 77, 81–3, 85, 89–94; (800–310 BCE) 129, 134, 143–5, 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 162–3; 201, 204; (1–400 CE) 233; (400–750) 319; (750–1000) 399; (1100–1600) 430–6, 465; (1200–1600) 482, 511–2, 517, 529–31, 538; (1492–1850) 577, 585, 597, 599; (1500–1830) 610; (1600–1830) 817, 887, 892, 897–8, 928, 935
porn / erotica / scandal 23; (12,000 BCE–1911) 108–9, 112–5, 122; (800–310 BCE) 129–30; (500 BCE–100 CE) 164, 192, 207–14; (750–1000) 342, 372, 389, 398, 400; (1200–1600) 533–43; (1500–1830) 671, 689–93; (1600–1830) 697, 741, 479, 793, 795, 811–2, 814, 891, 895, 903–4, 916, 922, 924, 928–50, 957
wet dreams (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100; (1–400 CE) 233; (400–750) 309; (750–1000) 408–12; (1200–1600) 528, 530–1, 553; (1600–1830) 696, 699

gender / gender role (12,000 BCE–1911) 100; (500 BCE–100 CE) 187; (1–400 CE) 232–3, 257–8, 263; (1492–1850) 576–7; (1500–1830) 601, 608–9, 648; (1600–1830) 949
clitoris / vagina / vulva / yoni 18, 21, 43; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101, 110, 119; (800–310 BCE) 145; 1–400 CE) 263, 266–7; (400–750) 299–300, 332; (750–1000) 352, 413–4; (1100–1600) 465; (1200–1600) 497, 529, 538, 540; (1500–1830) 629, 631, 675; (1600–1830) 698, 737–8, 741, 756, 879, 921, 928, 931, 933, 935–6, 941, 948, 952
cross-dressing (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 72, 75, 86; (800–310 BCE) 126 (500 BCE–100 CE) 181, 204; (1–400 CE) 234, 254, 257, 261; (400–750) 299, 318; (750–1000) 407; (1200–1600) 495–502; (1492–1850) 573–4, 577, 591–4, 596–7; (1500–1830) 602, 647–8; (1600–1830) 707, 723–4, 737–8, 741, 742, 748, 759–63, 766, 845, 905, 909, 930, 932
genderfuck / genderqueer (1200–1600) 496
hijra (400–750) 299–30
hysteria / prolonged virginity or abstinence (800–310 BCE) 150; (1100–1600) 435, 475; (1500–1830) 666; (1600–1830) 793, 809–11, 825–8, 877–8, 929
intersex (12,000 BCE–1911) 102; (800–310 BCE) 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 205; (1–400 CE) 260–1; (400–750) 299; (750–1000) 406–7; (1200–1600) 487, 495–9, 535; (1492–1850) 595; (1500–1830) 648; (1600–1830) 710, 911
matriarchy / matrilinear (12,000–1,200 BCE) 95; (12,000 BCE–1911) 102–3, 109; (500 BCE–100 CE) 187; (400–750) 300; (1492–1850) 573–4
men / masculinity 14; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 63–5, 81–8; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101–3, 110, 122; (800–310 BCE) 125–7, 135–6, 138, 140–3, 146–8; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159–66, 171–5, 185, 193,195–200, 213–4, 216–7; (1–400 CE) 221, 232, 247, 254–9, 262, 268, 274–6; (400–750) 286, 298–9, 317, 322, 325, 331, 334; (750–1000) 349, 357, 364, 386–7; (1100–1600) 451, 458, 467, 472–3; (1200–1600) 503, 526, 543; (1492–1850) 568, 573–7, 581–2, 587, 589; (1500–1830) 663–74, 677–8; (1600–1830) 748, 750–2, 759, 769, 771–2, 780, 784–7, 791–5, 800, 802, 804–7, 815–6, 818, 820–1, 826–7, 830–2, 860–1, 883, 908, 912, 929, 936
misogyny (500 BCE–100 CE) 192–3; (1–400 CE) 262–3; (400–750) 358–9; (750–1200) 391 (1100–1600) 454–8, 461–7, 470, 475; (1200–1600) 514–5; (1500–1830) 667–72; (1600–1830) 815–6, 821¬–2, 830–2, 834–5, 842–3, 846–7, 880, 933
patriarchy (12,000–1,200 BCE) 58, 68–80, 82–8, 95–6; (12,000 BCE–1911) 103–4; (500 BCE–100 CE) 174–5, 179–80, 185–6, 190, 195–6, 198, 206; (1–400 CE) 222, 238, 241, 260, 284; (1500–1830) 638; (1600–1830) 866
phallus / lingnam / herm / penis 21, 39–41, 47 (12,000–1,200 BCE) 62, 77, 82–3; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101, 106, 121; (800–310 BCE) 131–2, 134–5, 147–8, 155; (500 BCE–100 CE) 93–5, 161, 193, 204, 212–3; (400–750) 300–1; (750–1000) 408, 413–4; (1100–1600) 437, 444, 454–9, 472; (1200–1600) 482, 495, 497, 531–2, 535, 538, 540; (1492–1850) 561, 571, 576–7; (1500–1830) 608, 629–30, 643, 654, 676–7; (1600–1830) 756–7, 762, 873, 879, 921, 928, 931, 933, 936–7, 941–2, 952
transgender / berdache (12,000 BCE–1911) 102; (500 BCE–100 CE) 204; (1–400 CE) 256, 260; (750–1000) 407; (1200–1600) 498–9; (1492–1850) 575, 591–600; (1500–1830) 602, 646–8; (1600–1830) 741, 761, 764
transsexuals (12,000 BCE–1911) 101–2; (800–310 BCE) 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 204–5; (1–400 CE) 226; (400–750) 299; (750–1000) 407; (1492–1850) 577; (1600–1830) 764–5
transvestites (1200–1600) 498–501; (1600–1830) 764–5
women / femininity 13–5, 49–52; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 63–4, 71, 81–8, 93–7; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101–4, 110, 116–8, 122; (800–310 BCE) 123–4, 126–8, 135–41, 143–53; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159–61, 164, 171, 173, 175, 179–83, 185–93, 196–9, 207, 214–7; (1–400 CE) 221, 245, 247, 250, 254–9, 262, 268, 274–6; (400–750) 286, 294–5, 298, 305, 317–23, 331, 334; (750–1000) 345, 348–60, 364, 367–9, 386–7; (1100–1600) 451, 454–5, 458–67, 472–3; (1200–1600) 493, 503, 509, 520, 523, 526, 530, 534, 543; (1492–1850) 568, 573–7, 579–82, 587, 589–90; (1500–1830) 616–7, 619, 629, 654, 660–78, 683, 691–2; (1600–1830) 748, 750–2, 759, 761, 766, Chapter 15: 769–861, 880, 883, 894, 908, 912, 936, 951
women’s rights / gender equity (12,000–1,200 BCE) 63–8, 71, 76–7; (800–310 BCE) 145–53; (500 BCE–100 CE) 185–90, 192–3, 198–9, 214–5, 217; (1–400 CE) 254; (400–750) 320–1, 323–4, 331; (750–1000) 354, 357, 368; (1100–1600) 462, 464–5; (1200–1600) 520–1; (1500–1830) 628, 633, 665, 668, 672; (1600–1830) 802–3, 805–7, 821–2, 828–47, 912, Appendix II

going without sex
abstinence / chastity 26; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 71; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100–1, 107, 109; (500 BCE–100 CE) 168, 213–5; (1–400 CE) 223–5, 229–30, 232, 238, 246, 256, 258, 267, 274–6; (400–750) 287–8, 294, 301, 317–8, 320, 326; (750–1000) 340, 344–5, 348, 361, 373, 380, 390, 393, 404, 408–9; (1100–1600) 423–4, 449, 451; (1200–1600) 503, 506, 515–6, 518; (1492–1850) 567, 569–70; (1500–1830) 609, 621, 632–4, 662; (1600–1830) 769, 809, 820–1, 825, 850, 903, 958
monasticism / convents (12,000 BCE–1911) 101, 112; (1–400 CE) 245–7, 259, 272; (400–750) 286, 317, 329; (750–1000) 338–40, 346, 350–1, 357–61, 364, 378, 396, 408; (1100–1600) 430, 438, 448–53, 466; (1200–1600) 478, 489, 492, 508, 510–1; (1600–1830) 774–5, 835–6, 861, 936, 941
virginity (12,000–1,200 BCE) 60–3, 77, 81, 89; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101; (800–310 BCE) 145, 147, 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 160, 163, 182–4, 193, 196–7, 215; (1–400 CE) 230–2, 240, 245, 276; (400–750) 286–8, 294, 304, 311, 319, 324; (750–1000) 352–3, 360, 396, 398; (1100–1600) 431–3, 452, 461; (1200–1600) 508, 516–7, 521, 551; (1492–1850) 566–7, 577, 586, 594; (1500–1830) 618, 629, 664–5, 680, 683, 686, 688; (1600–1830) 754, 779, 809–16, 821, 837, 847, 880–1, 884, 895, 898, 909–10, 915, 919–20, 923, 932, 939, 955

pair bonding 14–7, 19–31, 41–3, 50–1
concubines (12,000–1,200 BCE) 67; (12,000 BCE–1911) 105; (800–310 BCE) 136; (500 BCE–100 CE) 172–4, 178, 181, 213; (400–750) 317, 324, 326, 329, 331–3; (750–1000) 344, 403; (1100–1600) 469, 475; (1200–1600) 496, 509, 516, 525; (1500–1830) 604, 611, 619, 652, 676; (1600–1830) 899, 906
courtesans / mistresses / mignons (800–310 BCE) 142; (500 BCE–100 CE) 213; (400–750) 297, 333, 335; (750–1000) 354–5; (1100–1600) 466; (1200–1600) 514; (1500–1830) 612, 615, 656, 676, 687; (1600–1830) 705-6, 732, 839–40, 845, 851, 866, 906–7, 913–4, 930, 939, 942
courting / dating / hooking up / cruising (550 BCE–100 CE) 201–2; (400–750) 291–2; (750–1200) 389; (1100–1600) 438–9; (1200–1600) 487–9; (1492–1850) 566–7, 585–6; (1500–1830) 619, 622–3, 657, 664, 683; (1600–1830) 711, 722, 755, 779–81, 849–50, 876, 884–5, 888–9
courtly love (750–1000) 337–8, 347–9, 367–86, 412; (1100–1600) 417–8; (1200–1600) 481, 533–4
dowry / bride price (12,000–1,200 BCE) 84–5; (12,000 BCE–1911) 104; (800–310 BCE) 138; (500 BCE–100 CE) 173, 185; (1–400 CE) 274–5; (400–750) 325; (750–1000) 342–4; (1100–1600) 448, 451, 462; (1200–1600) 506, 510, 520–4, 549; (1492–1850) 567, 587; (1500–1830) 618, 653, 683; (1600–1830) 772–5, 783, 798–9, 808
love 15–7, 22–3, 38; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 78–9, 88–91, 95; (12,000 BCE–1911) 99–100; (800–310 BCE) 123–4, 135; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159, 163–4, 168–9, 187, 196, 207, 213, 216; (1–400 CE) 253; (400–750) 290–1, 293–5, 301, 307, 314, 322–5, 327, 335; (750–1000) 338–9, 343, 348, 354, 361, 364–6, 368–85, 410; (1100–1600) 418; (1200–1600) 501, 506, 510, 514, 520, 525, 534; (1492–1850) 568, 585; (1500–1830) 618, 627, 635, 657–8, 662–4, 668, 670, 675–6; (1600–1830) 709, 714, 717–9, 739, 745–7, 755, 772, 778–9, 816, 819, 842, 856, 877–8, 882, 884, 886, 923, 932, 936
mixed-sex marriage / divorce / bigamy 23–6, 37–9; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 63, 65, 67–8, 75–6, 81, 88, 9–91; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100, 103–5, 110–2, 122, (800–310 BCE) 123–4, 126, 134, 136, 138–40, 146, 152, 154; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159, 171–83, 185–7, 194, 206, 210, 216–7; (1–400 CE) 227, 231–2, 238, 241, 245, 252–3, 260, 270–1, 273–80, 283; (400–750) 286–8, 290, 294–6, 299, 317–9, 321–6, 333; (750–1000) 340, 342–3, 345, 349, 351–7, 361, 364, 387, 394, 403–4, 406; (1100–1600) 418, 421, 423, 451, 461–2, 465, 468–9; (1200–1600) 484, 487, 503, 505–8, 510, 513–27, 533; (1492–1850) 565–6, 583, 585–90, 600; (1500–1830) 604, 606–7, 611–5, 618, 620–1, 624, 629, 635, 648–64, 669–72, 681, 683–4, 691; (1600–1830) 716, 754–5, 769–809, 812, 816, 818–25, 829, 839, 845, 847, 849, 851, 855, 860, 865, 880, 899, 912, 914, 923, 937, 939
monogamy (12,000–1,200 BCE) 58; (750–1000) 353–4, 400; (1500–1830) 607, 648; (1600–1830) 899, 903
passionate friendship / spiritual love / spiritual marriage (12,000–1,200 BCE) 88, (500 BCE–100 CE) 178–9; (1–400 CE) 252–3, 261–2, 278–80; (400–750) 288, 325–6; (750–1000) 338–40, 369, 376, 391–7; (1600–1830) 739, 817, 884
polyandry 38–9; (12,000 BCE–1911) 105; (800–310 BCE) 126; (1–400 CE) 277; (400–750) 296; (1492–1850) 588; (1600–1830) 912
polygyny / polygamy 38–40; (12,000 BCE–1911) 105, 110; (1–400 CE) 277; (400–750) 292, 296, 324, 332–3; (750–1000) 355; (1200–1600) 520; (1492–1850) 587–8; (1500–1830) 605; (1600–1830) 898, 901–4
romance (500 BCE–100 CE) 208, 216–7; (1–400 CE) 278; (400–750) 301; (750–1000) 348, 364, 368, 386, 412; (1200–1600) 533; (1500–1830) 663; (1600–1830) 725, 749, 752, 772, 778, 817, 829, 865, 880, 884, 936
same-sex marriage (12,000–1,200 BCE), 74, 91; (12,000 BCE–1911) 114–5; (500 BCE–100 CE) 176–7, 204, 216; (1–400 CE) 252–3, 265, 271, 278–80; (400–750) 290, 296, 329; (750–1000) 340–2, 394, 397–8, 400 (1200–1600) 526–7; (1492–1850) 590, 593, 596; (1500–1830) 657; (1600–1830) 724, 743, 801–2

race / racism / anti-semitism (1–400 CE) 243, 271; (400–750) 314–5; 328–9; (750–1200) 400, 402, 415 (1100–1600) 418–21, 425–8; (1200–1600) 491, 512–3; (1492–1850) 559; (1500–1830) 607, 609, 679–82, 684
mixed-race sex (1200–1600) 512–3; (1500–1830) 608, 611–9, 627, 635, 649–50, 652, 661, 674, 681; (1600–1830) 899–906
slavery (12,000–1,200 BCE) 58–64, 71–4, 79, 88; (12,000 BCE–1911) 99, 102; (800–310 BCE) 123, 131, 134, 140, 143, 147; (500 BCE–100 CE) 166, 170–2, 181, 184, 189, 192, 195, 198, 202–3, 205–7; (1–400 CE) 223, 237, 239, 242, 253, 274; (400–750) 305, 311, 317–8, 320–1, 325, 331, 333; (750–1000) 340, 344, 356, 403–4; (1100–1600) 418, 449; (1492–1850) 562–3, 580, 582–3, 587–8; (1500–1830) 602–3, 607–17, 619, 640, 650–1, 655, 661–2, 671, 675; (1600–1830) 770–1, 832, 839, 899

reproduction 19–24, 27–31, 44–5 (12,000–1,200 BCE) 60; (12,000 BCE–1911) 111; (800–310 BCE) 141; (500 BCE–100 CE) 175; (750–1000) 346, 351; (1100–1600) 423, 465–6; 895
childbirth 49; (1–400 CE) 228, 248; (400–750) 308; (750–1000) 351, 406; (1100–1600) 466, 469; (1492–1850) 563, 577, 583–4; (1600–1830) 799–800, 847–9
ejaculate / seed / sperm (12,000–1,200 BCE) 60–1, 69, 77, 81, 83, 86, 92 (12,000 BCE–1911) 104, 106–7; (800–310 BCE) 132, 134–5, 149; (500 BCE–100 CE) 172, 184; (1–400 CE) 224, 226–7, 255, 269; (400–750) 300, 302, 307, 327, 330; (750–1000) 363, 406, 408–12; (1100–1600) 455, 458, 470–2; (1200–1600) 477, 498, 502, 512, 519, 528, 543, 553; (1492–1850) 571; (1500–1830) 630–1, 681–2; (1600–1830) 696, 700, 702, 711, 725, 734, 757, 848, 852; 880, 882–3, 895, 931, 935, 950, 952, 957
fertility 22; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 77; (800–310 BCE) 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 193–4; (1–400 CE) 273; (400–750) 318, 321; (1492–1850) 584; (1600–1830) 847–9
impotence (12,000 BCE–1911) 111; (400–750) 314; (1500–1830) 676; (1600–1830) 696, 698, 796, 883, 944
infertility (12,000 BCE–1911) 111; (1–400 CE) 226, 273–4, 281; (400–750) 308, 314, 330; (750–1000) 362; (1100–1600) 458; (1600–1830) 698, 767, 796, 847
menstruation 45–9; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 73; (12,000 BCE–1911) 104, 111, 122; (500 BCE–100 CE) 182–3; (1–400 CE) 258, 280; (400–750) 299, 308, 319, 321–2; (750–1000) 354; (1100–1600) 459–61, 463; (1200–1600) 512, 528, 552; (1492–1850) 566, 577–80; (1500–1830) 662, 678–9, 681–2; (1600–1830) 825
ovum / human egg 44, (12,000–1,200 BCE) 60; (1100–1600) 466; (1600–1830) 848–9

sex crime
adultery (12,000–1,200 BCE) 71, 73–5, 77; (12,000 BCE–1911) 111; (800–310 BCE) 129, 137; (500 BCE–100 CE) 173, 184–5; (1–400 CE) 230, 236, 247, 273; (400–750) 297, 309, 312–3, 320–1, 325; (750–1000) 362, 375, 382, 401, 404, 414; (1100–1600) 422, 455–6, 472; (1200–1600) 502, 505–6, 508–11, 524–5, 544; (1492–1850) 580, 588–9; (1500–1830) 624, 625, 651–2, 656–7, 660, 666, 674, 676–7, 683; (1600–1830) 734, 754, 791–2, 805, 807, 817, 847, 880, 888, 932, 952
child sex abuse (1–400 CE) 271; (1100–1600) 472; (1200–1600) 504; (1500–1830) 609, 636; (1600–1830) 894–5, 939, 955
“crimes of passion” (12,000–1,200 BCE) 63
intimate partner violence (12,000–1,200 BCE) 79–80, 96; (12,000 BCE–1911) 111; (800–310 BCE) 147; (1–400 CE) 232, 276; (750–1000) 353, 367; (1100–1600) 458; (1200–1600) 517, 520, 546; (1492–1850) 576; (1500–1830) 650–1, 653, 658–9, 677–8, 770, 786–91, 795–6, 798, 802, 807, 812, 837, 905–6, 925
rape (12,000–1,200 BCE) 62, 86; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101; (800–310 BCE) 137, 147; (500 BCE–100 CE) 163–3, 177, 183, 197, 199, 210; (1–400 CE) 247; (400–750) 321; (750–1000) 344, 353; (1100–1600) 452; (1200–1600) 492, 502, 504, 508–9, 521, 542; (1492–1850) 564–5, 567, 589, 600; (1500–1830) 602, 609, 615–6, 619–20, 624–5, 662, 668, 686, 691; (1600–1830) 719, 734, 755, 814, 885, 893–5, 922, 938, 955
sex in a sacred place (500 BCE–100 CE) 215; (1100–1600) 452; (1200–1600) 511
sex panics (800–310 BCE) 148, 152
sexual abuse (12,000–1,200 BCE) 95
witchcraft / heresy / midwifery (1–400 CE) 242–5, 247, 284; (400–750) 314–5; (750–1000) 361, 369, 396, 402, 415; (1100–1600) 418–28, 430, 468–76; (1200–1600) 478, 482, 490, 515; (1492–1850) 565–6, 581; (1500–1830) 619, 628, 642–3, 672–8; (1600–1830) 856–61

sex infections (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 96; (1–400 CE) 223, 225, 227; (400–750) 314; (1200–1600) 502, 551; (1500–1830) 681–2, 687; (1600–1830) 852, 894, 921, 937, 942, 950–2, 955–6
anal warts (500 BCE–100 CE) 212; (1600–1830) 910
genital warts (1600–1830) 954
gonorrhea (500 BCE–100 CE) 224; (1200–1600) 546, 553; (1500–1830) 681–2; (1600–1830) 698, 882, 952–4
Hansen’s disease / leprosy 48; (400–750) 288, 314; (1100–1600) 418, 459, 460; (1200–1600) 477, 551–2, 555
HIV / AIDS (1200–1600) 552–3
safer sex
spermatorrhea (1–400 CE) 224; (1200–1600) 553
syphilis (1200–1600) 548–9, 553–4; (1500–1830) 681–2; (1600–1830) 868, 910, 950–2, 954

sex play / lovemaking (1–400 CE) 247; (400–750) 286, 289–90, 299–301, 315; (750–1000) 346, 357, 363, 365, 380, 399, 401, 412, 415; (1100–1600) 423, 439; (1200–1600) 503, 505, 517, 519, 531, 552; (1492–1850) 560–1, 568, 577, 588; (1500–1830) 605, 620, 626, 629, 632, 662, 667, 674, 682; (1600–1830) 879, 934
anal sex (12,000–1,200 BCE) 69, 71; (12,000 BCE–1911) 107; (800–310 BCE) 129, 132; (500 BCE–100 CE) 162, 183, 194, 199–200, 203, 207, 211–2; (1–400 CE) 237, 248, 264; (400–750) 291, 298–9, 306, 330; (1100–1600) 420, 446; (1200–1600) 480, 492, 495–6, 502, 525, 535; (1492–1850) 561–3, 584; (1500–1830) 629, 641, 679; (1600–1830) 687, 705, 708, 711, 725, 749, 766-7, 889, 912, 930, 932, 935, 937, 939, 942, 948, 952, 957
aphrodisiacs (750–1000) 343; (1600–1830) 886–7, 916
coitus 2–3, 6, 27, 37–8, 41–2; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 70; (12,000 BCE–1911) 106–7, 110–2, 118–9; (800–310 BCE) 129, 131, 136, 149, 154–5; (500 BCE–100 CE) 160, 164, 172, 182, 194, 207; (1–400 CE) 226, 229, 237, 274, 280; (400–750) 291, 301, 307–8, 315, 324; (750–1000) 345, 353, 361–2, 372–5, 379, 395, 398, 408; (1100–1600) 452, 459–60, 468, 473; (1200–1600) 502–3, 505, 511, 518, 520, 523, 525, 528, 531, 535, 540; (1492–1850) 563, 566, 568–9, 584, 586; (1500–1830) 604, 626–7, 629–30, 654, 667; (1600–1830) 696, 716, 752, 772–3, 796, 812, 816, 823, 849–51, 879, 882, 888–9, 909–10, 912, 915, 929, 931–3, 935, 937, 942
embracing (400–750) 291; (750–1000) 375, 381, 393, 398; (1200–1600) 518; (1600–1830) 849
flagellation / flogging (1–400 CE) 221; (400–1200) 303, 306; (750–1200) 356; (1100–1600) 435, 444, 452–2; (1200–1600) 492, 507, 556–7; (1500–1830) 620, 622, 643–4, 655, 678, 684; (1600–1830) 743, 890–2, 912, 915–7, 920, 922–3, 932, 938, 949
fornication / sex outside of marriage 26–7; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68–9; (12,000 BCE–1911) 112, 116; (800–310 BCE) 129; (500 BCE–100 CE) 171–2, 213; (1–400 CE) 225, 247, 249, 251–2, 272–4, 281; (400–750) 297, 301–2, 305–8, 312; (750–1000) 341, 346, 350, 401; (1100–1600) 461, 472; (1200–1600) 496, 505–6, 508, 511, 513, 521, 549–50; (1500–1830) 620–5, 627, 638, 649, 655, 660, 666–7, 674, 677–8, 689; (1600–1830) 705, 737, 781, 822, 847, 880, 884, 887, 894, 956–7
foreplay (400–750) 287, 291–2, 299, 330–1; (1100–1600) 465; (1200–1600) 503–4; (1600–1830) 888
frottage / body rubbing body 18, 87; (1–400 CE) 264; (750–1000) 375
hand jobs/ fondling (12,000–1,200 BCE) 87; (800–310 BCE) 142; (1–400 CE) 237; (400–750) 299, 330; (1100–1600) 465; (1492–1850) 561, 584; (1600–1830) 708, 710, 738, 850, 888, 921, 931
incest 37; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 73; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101–2; (800–310 BCE) 129; (1–400 CE) 223, 247; (400–750) 305, 307, 330, 333; (750–1000) 343, 403; (1100–1600) 430; (1200–1600) 502, 507–8, 531, 544, 546; (1492–1850) 565; (1500–1830) 619, 650–1, 657–8, 680; (1600–1830) 775–6, 909, 912, 932–3, 936, 939, 944
interfemoral sex / between the thighs (800–310 BCE) 131–2, 154; (400–750) 306, 330; (1600–1830) 708
intergenerational sex 38; (12,000 BCE–1911) 111, 114–5; (800–310 BCE) 124, 131–2, 140, 152; (500 BCE–100 CE) 205; (1–400 CE) 263; (400–750) 291, 306, 334–5; (750–1000) 339, 388–9, 394–5; (1100–1600) 420; (1200–1600) 483, 485–92, 504, 544; (1492–1850) 561, 594–5; (1500–1830) 605, 609, 617, 635, 640, 642, 645; (1600–1830) 705, 708, 711, 721, 732, 744–6, 749, 751, 754, 895, 915–6, 932, 939, 948
kink (800–310 BCE) 131–2, 154; (500 BCE–100 CE) 169; (1600–1830) 889–93, 909, 912, 916, 932, 938, 949
kissing 36; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 71, 87; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159, 168, 189–90, 199, 210; (1–400 CE) 261; (400–750) 287, 291, 302, 323; (750–1000) 375, 381, 392–3, 398; (1200–1600) 501, 508, 518, 534; (1492–1850) 560, 563–4; (1500–1830) 627, 630–1, 654, 667–8, 671; (1600–1830) 717, 721, 731, 780, 850
mixed-sex sex (12,000–1,200 BCE) 90–3; (12,000 BCE–1911) 99; (500 BCE–100 CE) 174, 201, 208; (1–400 CE) 237, 267, 269; (400–750) 331; (750–1000) 341, 364–6, 390, 399, 408; (1100–1600) 452; (1200–1600) 481, 506, 511, 513, 534; (1492–1850) 563, 584; (1500–1830) 624, 626–7, 646; (1600–1830) 722, 750–1, 756, 784, 883–5, 895, 909, 913, 930, 942, 944
nonprocreative sex (1–400 CE) 226–8, 263, 271, 280–1; (400–750) 327; (750–1000) 362, 364, 369; (1200–1600) 503, 538; (1500–1830) 618, 621, 626–7, 679; (1600–1830) 695, 768, 821, 825, 888–9, 958
oral sex 38; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 69–70, 87; (12,000 BCE–1911) 107, 110; (800–310 BCE) 129, 131; (500 BCE–100 CE) 194, 199–200, 207, 211; (1–400 CE) 226, 228, 237, 248, 276; (400–750) 291, 298; (750–1000) 363, 374, 399; (1200–1600) 502; (1492–1850) 554, 584; (1500–1830) 641; (1600–1830) 714, 738, 749, 888–9, 932, 952
orgasm 38, 47; (12,000 BCE–1911) 101; (800–310 BCE) 149; (500 BCE–100 CE) 172, 209; (1–400 CE) 229; (400–750) 287, 295; (750–1000) 362–3, 375; (1100–1600) 445; (1200–1600) 533, 543; (1492–1850) 564; (1500–1830) 625, 630, 633; (1600–1830) 696, 821, 825, 879–80, 883, 889–90, 894–5, 928, 930, 941
orgy / group sex 18; (500 BCE–100 CE) 193; (400–750) 314 (1100–1600) 423–4, 468; (1600–1830) 890, 909, 913, 932, 939, 940–1, 944
paraphilia (1600–1830) 889–90
pedophilia
piercing / bloodletting (1492–1850) 570–3
same-sex sex / “sodomy” 6, 18–20, 29–31; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68–71, 73–4, 86–90; (12,000 BCE–1911) 99, 102, 105, 113–6; (800–310 BCE) 125, 127, 129, 131–3, 136, 140, 154; (500 BCE–100 CE) 161–2, 174, 176–8, 200–4, 206; (1–400 CE) 225–6, 263–73; (400–750) 300, 306, 326–32, 334; (750–1000) 339, 341–2, 357, 387–403, 405–6, 408, 414–5; (1100–1600) 419–20, 423, 426–30, 434–5, 468; (1200–1600) 477, 497, 502, 515, 527, 531, 534, 538, 551; (1492–1850) 561–3, 577, 584, 591, 593–5, 598, 600; (1500–1830) 601–3, 619, 621, 628–9, 634–5, 639–47, 679, 691; (1600–1830) 705–23, 755, 758–9, 763, 766, 880, 889, 895, 907, 909, 912, 917, 930–2, 955–9, 942–4, 958
S & M (500 BCE–100 CE) 169; (1600–1830) 938, 940
sex drive / sexual desire / lust / love fever — Chapter One: 1–34; (800–310 BCE) 153; (500 BCE–100 CE) 182, 194; (1–400 CE) 257; (400–750) 288–90, 297, 316, 325, 332–3; (750–1000) 339, 341–2, 357, 387–403, 405–6, 408, 414–5; (750–1000) 340, 346, 352, 355, 357, 365, 377, 412–3; (1100–1600) 417, 452, 473; (1200–1600) 503, 518–9, 546; (1492–1850) 576–7; (1500–1830) 615, 619, 624, 629, 632, 639, 681, 692; (1600–1830) 815–6, 819, 821, 855, 877–8, 882, 884, 936, 956–7
sex toys 23, 40; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100; (800–310 BCE) 136; (1–400 CE) 237, 251, 261, 263; (400–750) 295, 298–9, 330; (1200–1600) 480, 524, 543; (1600–1830) 648, 734, 738, 755, 935–6, 942, 944, 948
sexual function / dysfunction (1600–1830) 929
sexual pleasure 2, 4–6, 8, 12, 15, 17–9, 24, 27, 31, 36, 40, 42–3, 54–5; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 57, 63, 68–9, 87; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100, 102, 109–11; (800–310 BCE) 136, 145–6, 148–9, 151; (500 BCE–100 CE) 164, 167–8, 170, 173; (1–400 CE) 225, 227, 284; (400–750) 298, 326, 331–3; (750–1000) 354–5, 363, 365; (1200–1600) 525, 533, 541; (1492–1850) 560; (1500–1830) 605, 618, 620, 635; (1600–1830) 700, 731, 867, 883, 909, 931, 936
sex with animals 36–7; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 73–5; (800–310 BCE) 129, (500 BCE–100 CE) 166; (400–750) 330; (1100–1600) 420–1, 426, 428, 434; (1200–1600) 478, 480, 502, 515, 542, 544; (1492–1850) 561; (1500–1830) 619, 635–6, 643, 679; (1600–1830) 709, 714, 725, 895–7, 948, 958
solo sex 18–9; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68–9, 82; (12,000 BCE–1911) 100, 102; (800–310 BCE) 129; (500 BCE–100 CE) 160, 183; (1–400 CE) 226–7, 248; (400–750) 300, 306, 330; (750–1000) 408–11; (1100–1600) 472; (1200–1600) 478, 480, 502, 515, 542, 544; (1200–1600) 528–33, 544, 553; (1492–1850) 561, 584; (1500–1830) 622, 635, 637–9, 643, 679, 682; (1600–1830) 695–701, 706, 716, 757–8, 915, 931, 942, 957–8
wife-swapping (1492–1850) 588; (1500–1830) 656, 657; (1600–1830) 879, 890

sexual orientation (1600–1830) 707
asexual (1–400 CE) 232–3; (1600–1830) 765, 817–21
gay 14; (500 BCE–100 CE) 203; (1600–1830) 753
bisexual 14; (800–310 BCE) 133; (500 BCE–100 CE) 201; (750–1000) 389 (1200–1600) 492, 496; (1600–1830) 705–6, 732, 749, 880
lesbian 14; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 93; (500 BCE–100 CE) 212; (1200–1600) 498–9; (1600–1830) 709, 736, 738–9, 741, 764
straight (750–1000) 415; (1600–1830) 753

sex workers 23; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 72, 84; (800–310 BCE) 130, 136–7, 140, 142–3, 147; (500 BCE–100 CE) 159, 169–74, 202, 211–2; (1–400 CE) 253, 262, 276–7; (400–750) 287, 293, 297, 300, 325, 328; (750–1000) 339, 342, 355–6, 358, 398; (1100–1600) 467, 469; (1200–1600) 487, 495–6, 538–9, 543–52; (1492–1850) 564, 575, 600; (1500–1830) 605–7, 619, 668, 680, 682–89, 691; (1600–1830) 697, 716, 722, 724–5, 747, 749, 752–3, 755, 780, 798, 813, 815, 847, 853, 861, 884–6, 899, 910–27, 936–7, 940, 942, 949–51, 956, Appendix III
boys / men 23; (12,000–1,200 BCE) 72; (500 BCE–100 CE) 171, 203; (1–400 CE) 271; (750–1000) 398; (1200–1600) 544; (1600–1830) 707, 748, 749
brothels / bagnios (12,000–1,200 BCE) 64; (500 BCE–100 CE) 170, 201; (750–1000) 355–6; (1200–1600) 496, 508, 544–5, 548–52; (1500–1830) 684–7; (1600–1830) 708, 715, 722, 724, 755, 851, 886, 892, 907, 910, 914–9, 921–2, 926, 934, 937, 944, 952
children 23; (1–400 CE) 271; (1600–1830) 748, 915–6, 923, 955
doctors (1–400 CE) 227; (1600–1830) 825
hetairai (800–310 BCE) 141–3
johns / customers (1200–1600) 549; (1500–1830) 686; (1600–1830) 918–9, 927, 950–1
sex tourism (1500–1830) 605–7, 611–2; (1600–1830) 897–906, 909
streetwalkers (500 BCE–100 CE) 170–1; (1200–1600) 545; (1600–1830) 914, 925–6
stripping (500 BCE–100 CE) 207
temple harlots (12,000–1,200 BCE) 68, 71–2, 84; (800–310 BCE) 143; (1–400 CE) 234; (400–750) 297–8; (1200–1600) 511
trans / intersex (1200–1600) 495–6

See also

Bibliographic Information

Book Title
How Sex Got Screwed Up: The Ghosts that Haunt Our Sexual Pleasure - Book One
Book Subtitle
From the Stone Age to the Enlightenment
ISBN
978-1-62273-361-3
Edition
1st
Number of pages
1078
Physical size
236mm x 160mm
Illustrations
54 B&W
Publication date
March 2019
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