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Researching the controversy over bovine tuberculosis and the culling of badgers1st edition / ISBN: 978-1-62273-187-9
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Bovine tuberculosis is seriously damaging the UK dairy and beef industry. Many farmers believe culling badgers must be part of the solution, but in 2013 a record 300,000 people signed a Downing Street petition asking the government to stop planned culls of badgers in Somerset and Gloucestershire, fuelling media controversy and signalling the beginning of a social conflict that was acted out in studios, streets, fields and village halls across England. The four-year trial culls, which began that year, aimed to establish that culling was a viable way of tackling the disease, but the widely divergent experiences and values of policy-makers, farming, conservation and animal welfare supporters means that decades of science on the disease in badgers and the effects of culling has not helped resolve the dispute. Reporting on original, UK research council-funded social science, this book takes on the challenge of understanding the contrasting views involved. Listening carefully to what the different protagonists have to say, the book unpicks the way science is interpreted to sustain differing conclusions, and considers how social science thinking could contribute. The book develops a critical perspective on the increasingly important literature influenced by new materialism, the social science response to the Science Wars, and explores the extent to which a social movement around opposition to the culls is emerging. In approachable prose, this access-all-areas account describes the struggle to develop understanding through the messy process of research and the difficulties of scientific analysis and philosophical thought. As such, it provides a valuable resource for both research practitioners and teachers within the social sciences, as well as an accessible way for biological scientists, conservationists and farmers to reflect on the issues around the management of disease in livestock and wildlife.
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The concept of design has been defined in a multitude of ways and used in a variety of academic fields, ranging from the classics of organizational and system design to studies on corporate culture, aesthetics and consumption. However, in mainstream organization and management studies, the concept of design has been ‘black-boxed’ and easily implied as an updated (and more fashionable) version of the traditional idea of structuring organizational processes. At the same time, working and organizing seem to be embedded nowadays in increasingly complex and situated technologies and practices. If the spreading of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has changed workplaces (and even the very meaning of 'workplace' as an area marked by the physical presence of different human actors), working and organizing mobilizes the joint action of humans, technologies and knowledges. The aim of the book is thus to discuss the relations among technologies, work and organisations from multiple theoretical perspectives and to engage with questions about design as well as the sociomaterial foundations of working and organising. The book focuses on the close study of practices and processes that inextricably link work and organisation to the use of artefacts and technological systems (and vice versa), exploring by means of different cases of organizational and design research articulations and disarticulations of daily work and design; the doing of objects and technologies in everyday organizational life; the reconstruction of organizational processes through technological and design practices; the relation between learning, innovations and technologies in organizational settings. The book is addressed to graduate students, PhDs, scholars and researchers interested in the fields of Organization Studies, Science and Technology Studies, Sociology and Design, as well as to professionals and practitioners interested in new methodological approaches towards the relations between technology, work and organization.
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The book critically examines and assesses the literary evidence available through Vedic and allied literature portraying the nature of Vedic polity, the functionalities of its various institutions, and the various social and religious practices. The book is not a narrative but critically examines the nature of changes in a host of these areas that occurred at each stage of Vedic polity from early Vedic period to post Ṛig-Vedic period. It outlines in historical perspective the various stages involved in the development of Vedic polity and Vedic canon and how the two processes have gone along together. It contains extensive discussions on political system and institutions, religious and social practices as they obtained during the Rig-Vedic and post Rig-Vedic periods. It provides a fresh approach to the cult of sacrifice and fire rituals practiced by Vedic Aryans along with an in-depth analysis of the Vedic view of Nationalism, Sovereignty and State as discernible from Vedic texts .The book also features an extensive discussion on the institution of kingship, administrative machinery, role of various entities in the polity including the Purohita, the Sabha and the Samiti, position of women, Varna system and features of tribal kingdoms, such as the Kuru-Panchalas and Kosala-Videhas. Isolating political and social aspects from the essentially religious character of Vedic literature, an attempt has been made to show with due corroboration that the tribal polity was not deficient in political content contrary to the stance of some scholars to depict Vedic Aryans as apolitical and inward looking. The present book partakes both the current and previous scholarship on the subject but breaks a new path with its exclusive focus on the Rig-Vedic and Post Rig-Vedic polity, together with a balanced and objective assessment of their features. It brings all the relevant and connected issues on to one platform, and deals with them in a holistic manner. Its unique features include: • The “Vedic Grid”: a graphical representation and tabulations of the characteristics of each of the about 50 Vedic tribes, including information on the location of their habitat, their time line, the names of their chieftains and their linkage with priestly clans. • A special focus on the Second Urbanization taking place in the Gangetic valley between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. It explains how towards the end of the later Vedic period, the polity underwent a change in political, social and economic spheres which blossomed later during the period of Mauryas. • Two appendices dealing with the theories of Aryan migration and the relationship of the Vedic Aryans with the Harappa culture and what can be ascertained by Vedic literature.
An Economic Look at the Culture of the Poor1st edition / ISBN: 978-1-62273-018-6
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Are the impoverished victims of circumstance or are they contributing to their situations through their own actions and principles? This perplexing question does not have a simple answer. "Generational Poverty: An Economic Look at the Culture of the Poor" examines both sides of the coin. Written by an economist, the book provides a unique perspective into the study of this emotionally-charged issue. It shows that economic analysis can shed light on some of the roots of persistent poverty and may point to its potential solution. Generational Poverty covers the author’s eye-opening experiences with a young man named Jermaine and his family, initiated through the Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) program. As someone who cares for Jermaine and his family, it was nothing short of a surprise to see first-hand some of the obstacles Jermaine’s family are creating for themselves, while at the same time battling many of today’s social constructs. In the course of the program, the author learned a great deal about Jermaine’s life, culture, and the obstacles he faces. This work identifies impediments that Jermaine has experienced as well as common challenges faced in his community. In the words of the author: “Most of my research for this book is devoted to pinpointing these cultural issues and gathering varying opinions for each one. While I do detail each unique perspective, my goal is to align each argument to an economic fundamental. This creates a more consistent diagnosis that does not depend on a personal set of values. My hope is that future economists will continue to study this suffering portion of our population to determine the most effective way to remedy the continuingly increasing problem of poverty.”
A novel innovation indicator and its implications for technology evaluation1st edition / ISBN: 978-1-62273-008-7
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Not all innovations are equal. Though recent economic literature on the evaluation of technological change acknowledges this reality, actual evaluation methods suffer from numerous limitations. Technological Innovation Index uses patent citation analysis to highlight the enormous variation in the characteristics, importance and evolution of technology over time and outlines a set of sophisticated tools for its analysis. Prominent among them is “Patent Importance Technology Factor” (PITF), an improved algorithm for the calculation of patent impact using citation scores. The usefulness of PITF is illustrated by examining the evolution paths of high-impact innovations. The methods proposed have important implications for the measurement of technological change and would be of interest to a wide range of patent specialists, including economists, technology evaluators, finance and law professionals.