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Understanding globalization through the lens of network analysis
Sara Gorgoni, University of Greenwich
The globalisation of industries in recent decades has led to a fundamental change in the way in which production is structured: products are no longer manufactured in their entirety in a single location. Integration of global trade has been accompanied by disintegration of production. This disintegration, or rather fragmentation, of production has resulted in a shift-change in patterns of international trade and investment, with a rise in trade of intermediate goods and a rise in FDI activity. In addition, multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a more focal role in this reorganisation of production, spreading out their manufacturing and supply chain activities globally, resulting in an increase in FDI and intra-firm trade. This international fragmentation of production challenges our ability to understand the international economy. Global value chains is one leading theoretical approach encompassing and trying to make sense of these changes, but scholars point to several limitations of it, most prominently the difficulty of aggregating from firm-level observations to national-level. A crucial aspect is that these changes in trade and FDI patterns have resulted in a more interconnected world economy. Understanding the interdependencies between entities involved in the fragmented production process is essential in order to understand the way production is organised today. Traditional methods and statistical approaches are insufficient to address this challenge. This edited book makes a case for the use of network analysis alongside existing techniques in answering burning questions in the areas of international business and economics, such as whether trade has become more global or regional, and to what extent emerging economies challenge the role of traditional producers in specific industries. The book looks at how the approach and methodologies of network analysis can contribute in explaining international business and economics phenomena, in particular related to international trade and investment. It will provide a comprehensive but accessible explanation of the applications of network analysis applications and some of the most recent methodological advances that can contribute to research in the area of international trade and investment. (provisional and subject to change)
Imperative of Economic Growth in the Eurozone: Competitiveness, Capital Flows and Structural ReformsNovember 2017 / ISBN: 978-1-62273-263-0
Availability: In stock
$62 £51 €58
European economic recovery appears to be taking hold. So is the European crisis over? The acute phase of the crisis passed, however a number of medium and long term issues remain. The policies of “internal devaluations” are working, albeit slowly, to restore competitiveness in the countries most affected by the crisis. However, growth remains at best sluggish. The medium and long term outlook remains highly uncertain, fomenting social tensions and endangering political stability. The restoration of economic dynamism is increasingly perceived as the answer to the question of the “European” future – economically, politically and socially. There is a broad consensus that dynamic structural reforms and the restoration of competitiveness at the level of the global economy are key answers to current European challenges. However, whatever the form these may take, the transfer of resources is implicit (and seemingly necessary), to underpin the current structure of eurozone. This indeed raises the question of governance – both fiscal and monetary. After all, the provision of resources implies an allocation – and it is hard to imagine that resources will be provided to the common pool unless the providers have some say with respect to allocation. And that requires some form of common (i.e. centralized) decision-making procedures, in all likelihood exceeding the common understanding of the acquis communautaire as it exists today – i.e. some form of the effective political arrangement. In this context, the basic idea which connects all contributions in this volume is the analysis of the problems which affected the Eurozone in the past decade and the challenges and dilemmas the Eurozone will face in the coming years.
Availability: In stock
$75 £68 €73
This volume covers various issues in global development and global economic transformation including factors affecting economies and development in the European Union (EU), the Ukraine, select countries in Africa, the Caribbean, the South Pacific as well as India and the United States. The global economy is in transition, from the 1990s' status quo to the “new normal” with heavy reliance on the internet, rapid communications, sophisticated payment systems, diminishing importance of size and distance and changing notions of the market. This volume discusses how this process is affecting economies across the globe and why an appreciation of it will help efforts by governmental bodies and the private sector to reassess societal relationships - both economic and political. This volume shows that challenges to policy-making and the achievement of social consensus on development issues are often quite similar in all countries, irrespective of size, geographical location, endowment and developmental status. The chapters speak to concerns that touch on a cross-section of issues which are driving transition and transformation at multiple levels. As a group, they compare economic factors across transnational economic or political associations (OECD, European Union, G20) or make comparisons across or within emerging markets or small states (BRICS, various African countries, the Caribbean, South Pacific). They include the presentation of a new model for transnational agreements, discussions of policies related to labor compensation and corporate governance, comparisons of nations across the world using indices of economic development and governance, an analysis of gender inequality in employment in the European Union, comparisons of tax burdens across the European Union and the USA, discussions of employee representation in corporate governance, and a look at grass-roots development and markets in developing economies. As a whole, in its breadth and cross-national perspective, the volume represents an important scholarly contribution to international economics.
A conceptual framework and implementation guidance for intergenerational fairness
Julia M. Puaschunder, The New School
Availability: In stock
$65 £54 €61
Today's grand policy dilemmas, from climate change, to over-indebtedness, to demographic shifts, have momentous long-term implications. Future generations will be constrained by our present decisions to an extent that is without precedent in advanced capitalist democracies. This book is an extensively researched and reasoned appeal in favor of intergenerational fairness - the ability to provide to future generations an at least as favorable standard of living as that enjoyed today. Intergenerational equity is an essential consideration in finding lasting solutions to the multifaceted crises of our time. As an implicit contract and transfer between living and future generations, intergenerational equity avoids discriminating against future generations. The book aims to theoretically define intergenerational equity and to frame it as a natural behavioral law, capturing human ethicality bounds. It follows a long and distinguished tradition of scholarly discourse in turning to natural law for solutions to major social predicaments. Outlining some of the causes of the current intergenerational imbalances regarding climate change and over-indebtedness it sets the basis for understanding their drivers and implications. A central proposition is that the natural human drive towards intergenerational fairness can be the basis for the necessary behavioral responses: the human-imbued moral compass of natural law can be a useful complement, if not alternative, to public policy. This book fills an important gap. Despite a resurgence of literature, the economic and social dimensions of intergenerational equity remain underexplored. Existing literature misses a holistic ethical framework of decision-making failures that addresses intergenerational concerns. Whilst evolutionary grounded, intergenerational fairness has not been recognized as a natural behavioral law – a human-imbued drive being bound by human fallibility. Practical implications and recommendations in advancing an agenda for the advancement of intergenerational equity are provided. Attention is drawn to the problem of providing the required leadership to promote the idea of intergenerational equity as a guiding principle in corporate, social and policy action. This book contributes both theoretical and practical insights and will be of interest to economists, sociologists, public policy makers and corporate executives tasked with tackling the most pressing contemporary challenges of mankind.
Productivity, Export and Development ChallengesMay 2017 / ISBN: 978-1-62273-272-2
Availability: In stock
$40 £35 €38
Over the course of the past two decades peripheral European economies in the Balkans and in Eastern Europe have experienced significant structural changes and have adapted to the global economic environment. Agriculture and the processing, using and trading of agricultural products play an important role in their economies. This volume covers several issues facing the contemporary agricultural sector in these countries, such as the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union, the identification of an opinion leader portrait in agriculture, the characteristics of using Information and Communication Technologies as tools in the partnerships and internal processes of enterprises throughout the whole agro-food supply chain, the increased need of small-scale artisanal food businesses to seek new markets abroad, the perceptions of Greek olive oil importers in the UK, the barriers that Greek yogurt entrepreneurs face during their export activities, the reasons for the differences in economic performance and the role of tangible and less tangible factors influencing development outcomes. It will be of interest to researchers studying economic development, agricultural economists, businesses active in the primary sector and students of applied economic analysis.